[165] Wassermann EM, Cohen LG, Flitman SS, Chen R and Hallett M. Seizure in healthy people with repeated 'safe' trains of transcranial magnetic stimulation. s produces a visual sensation s s in the visual field of the blind volunteer (figure 1a). Single visual sensations are called phosphenes. The visual cortex is made up of specialized neurons that turn the sensations they receive from the optic nerve into meaningful images. Next, consider a complexstimulation formed by two simultaneous electrode contact stimulations C m,1 andC m,2 . These types of phosphene sensations bear similarities to those reported in previous studies of TMS stimulation of the V1 27,28,29, whereby the perception of weak lights having a pale white/gray or sometimes an ‘unsaturated color’ was reported, sometimes even accompanying the presence of textured visual patterns 30,31. After a short time (around 10 minutes), participants report feeling as though the rubber hand “belongs” to them; that is, that the rubber hand is a part of their body. This sets up a correspondence between the tactile sensations (coming from the obscured hand) and the visual sensations (of the rubber hand). 40 , T138. In other cortical areas TMS leads to inhibitory processes Repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) of the dominant hemisphere can disrupt visual naming as well as speech in temporal lobe epilepsy patients. 1996. Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation (TMS) is a non-invasive technique ... application of TMS. The force may be substantial, Transcranial magnetic stimulation is the application of a brief magnetic pulse, or a train of pulses, to the scalp, which results in induction of a local electric field and, thus, TMS-induced changes in the local electrical field in the underlying surface of the brain. It is important to note that the magnetic field ... Subjective visual sensations can be induced by stimulation over the visual cortex. Phosphenes: A subjective visual sensation with the eyes closed and in the absence of light.Phosphenes can be spontaneous, or induced by chemical, electrical, or mechanical (pressure) stimuli which cause the visual field to light up without optical inputs. Ann Neurol. Phosphenes induced by transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) are sensations of light, whereas a missing region in the visual field induced by TMS is generally referred to as a scotoma. 7 Transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) is a technique in which the influence of the magnetic pulses will undermine the function of the cortical areas. Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation (TMS) ... Walsh, visual sensations, i.e., magnetophosphenes: "a faint flickering ... field present in TMS will generate forces on objects exposed to it: magnetic objects will be attracted and nonmagnetic repelled. Phosphenes induced by transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) are sensations of light, whereas a missing region in the visual field induced by TMS is generally referred to as a scotoma. 6 In the original wording "selectively lose the conscious visual perception of faces or motion." LITERATURE … Because there are no photoreceptor cells at the place where the optic nerve leaves the retina, a hole or blind spot in our vision is created (see Figure 4.12 “Blind Spot Demonstration” ). It has been experimentally established that each contact