[110] In 2018, Slate observed that Kagan had crossed ideological lines on multiple cases during the proceeding term, and considered her to be part of a centrist bloc along with Justices Roberts, Stephen Breyer, and Anthony Kennedy. [34], Military tactics concerns itself with the methods for engaging and defeating the enemy in direct combat. [68] At least two previous solicitors general, Robert Bork and Kenneth Starr, had no previous Supreme Court appearances. She wrote the majority opinion in Cooper v. Harris, a landmark case restricting the permissible uses of race in drawing congressional districts. [36] Be prepared to talk about your background, work experience, future goals and knowledge of General Atomics — all in specific terms, rather than general answers. Furthermore, the study suggests that the most disadvantaged socio-economic groups are less likely to meet the requirements of the modern U.S. [100][101] She is the first person appointed to the Court without any prior experience as a judge since William Rehnquist and Lewis F. Powell Jr., who both became members in 1972. She received a $10,000 stipend for her service. Perhaps the most infamous of all military technologies was the creation of the atomic bomb, although the exact effects of its radiation were unknown until the early 1950s. One of the most important role of logistics is the supply of munitions as a primary type of consumable, their storage, and disposal. Elena Kagan (/ ˈ k eɪ ɡ ə n /; born April 28, 1960) is an associate justice of the Supreme Court of the United States.She was nominated by President Barack Obama on May 10, 2010 and has served since August 7, 2010. For this purpose, some of the commanding forces and other military, as well as often civilian personnel participate in identification of these threats. There are various forms of irregular military forces, not belonging to a recognized state; though they share many attributes with regular military forces, they are less often referred to as simply military. infantry), combat support roles (e.g. The most significant technological developments that influenced combat have been the guided missiles, which can be used by all branches of the armed services. Possessing military capability is not sufficient if this capability cannot be deployed for, and employed in combat operations. "[15], Kagan attended Hunter College High School, where her mother taught. [123] Writing for the liberal wing, she took issue with the majority's creation of an exception to the Establishment Clause of the First Amendment. Meet the Customer Service Reps for Disney and Airbnb Who Have to Pay to Talk to You. Main battle tanks, and other heavy equipment such as armoured fighting vehicles, military aircraft, and ships, are characteristic to organized military forces. The profession of soldiering as part of a military is older than recorded history itself. She viewed the majority's decision as creating a loophole for governments to fund religion. SCA/A's Political-Military Unit coordinates closely with DOD and NATO Coalition Allies to promote security and stability within Afghanistan. When the intelligence reporting is compared to the policy, it becomes possible for the national leadership to consider allocating resources over and above the officers and their subordinates military pay, and the expense of maintaining military facilities and military support services for them. How victory is achieved, and what shape it assumes, is studied by most, if not all, military groups on three levels. The primary reason for the existence of the military is to engage in combat, should it be required to do so by the national defence policy, and to win. Militarist ideology is the society's social attitude of being best served, or being a beneficiary of a government, or guided by concepts embodied in the military culture, doctrine, system, or leaders. International conventions define what constitutes a war crime, and provides for war crimes prosecution. This enabled her to study at Worcester College, Oxford. In a democracy or other political system run in the public interest, it is a public force. Since then, the advances made by human societies, and that of weapons, has been irretrievably linked. [119][120] Kagan wrote the majority opinion in Kimble v. Marvel Entertainment, LLC. logistical support). He says the biggest draw to extremist groups is "wanting to belong," or feeling a part of something bigger, which he says makes military members the perfect target for extremist recruiters. [49][50], After her service in the White House and her lapsed judicial nomination, Kagan returned to academia in 1999. As a noun, the military usually refers generally to a country's armed forces, or sometimes, more specifically, to the senior officers who command them. A thousand years later, the first emperor of unified China, Qin Shi Huang, was so determined to impress the gods with his military might that he had himself buried with an army of terracotta soldiers. President Obama nominated her to the Supreme Court to fill the vacancy arising from the impending retirement of Justice John Paul Stevens. The operational level is at a scale bigger than one where line of sight and the time of day are important, and smaller than the strategic level, where production and politics are considerations. Many new designs, and concepts were used in combat, and all existing technologies of warfare were improved between 1939 and 1945. Kagan was born and raised in New York City. [139] She has said that she approaches writing on the court like she used to approach the classroom, with numerous strategies to engage the reader. It presented a critical look at the exclusionary rule and its evolution on the Supreme Court—in particular the Warren Court. [144] That same year, a painting of the four women to have served as Supreme Court justices, Kagan, Sotomayor, Ginsburg, and O'Connor, was unveiled at the National Portrait Gallery in Washington, D.C.[145] In 2018, Kagan received the Marshall-Wythe Medallionan from William & Mary Law School,[146] and an honorary degree of Doctor of Humane Letters from Hunter College. [126] Greece involved a town in New York inviting chaplains, for several years all Christian, to give a prayer before town council meetings. [16] However, a study released in 2020 on the socio-economic backgrounds of U.S. Armed Forces personnel suggests that they are at parity or slightly higher than the civilian population with respect to socio-economic indicators such as parental income, parental wealth and cognitive abilities. Specter said it obscured the way justices actually ruled once on the court. [131] The majority sought to distinguish their holding in Luis from Monsanto based upon the nature of the funds being frozen; Luis's funds were not directly linked to her crime and Monsanto's funds were. She worked on such issues affecting the Clinton administration as the Whitewater controversy, the White House travel office controversy, and Clinton v. Military history has a number of facets. [8][9] Both her parents were the children of Russian Jewish immigrants. [12], Kagan's childhood friend Margaret Raymond recalled that she was a teenage smoker but not a partier. Kagan was born on April 28, 1960, in Manhattan, the second of three children[6][7] of Robert Kagan, an attorney who represented tenants trying to remain in their homes, and Gloria (Gittelman) Kagan, who taught at Hunter College Elementary School. For example: The next requirement comes as a fairly basic need for the military to identify possible threats it may be called upon to face. A military recruiter can help answer questions about service, which can provide a positive but realistic assessment of opportunities. [18] She was particularly drawn to American history and archival research. [130] An earlier Supreme Court case, United States v. Monsanto, 491 U.S. 600 (1989), held that a court could freeze a defendant's assets pretrial, including funds obtained through the alleged sale of drugs, even when those assets were being used to hire an attorney. [4] It comes from the Latin militaris (from Latin miles, meaning "soldier") through French, but is of uncertain etymology, one suggestion being derived from *mil-it- – going in a body or mass.[5][6]. Full-time military employment normally requires a minimum period of service of several years; between two and six years is typical of armed forces in Australia, the UK and the US, for example, depending on role, branch, and rank. Being commissioned as an officer gives young, new lieutenants a degree of status over a young, new airmen, privates, or seamen — but not the NCO. The Senate Judiciary Committee's Republican Chairman, Orrin Hatch, scheduled no hearing, effectively ending her nomination. The email read in part, "This action causes me deep distress. Stone weapons gave way to Bronze Age weapons, and later, the Iron Age weapons. These developed into the powerful composite and recurve bows, and crossbows of Ancient China. For the first time, the Court had three sitting female justices: Kagan, Ginsburg, and Sotomayor. As with any occupation, since the ancient times, the military has been distinguished from other members of the society by their tools, the military weapons, and military equipment used in combat. [73] Upon taking office, Kagan pledged to defend any statute as long as there was a colorable argument to be made, regardless of her personal opinions. [89], On May 10, 2010, Obama nominated Kagan to the Supreme Court. [8], Despite the growing importance of military technology, military activity depends above all on people. [51] Kagan quickly found a position as a visiting professor at Harvard Law School. She began her career as a professor at the University of Chicago Law School, leaving to serve as Associate White House Counsel, and later as a policy adviser under President Bill Clinton. Far greater use of military vehicles had finally eliminated the cavalry from the military force structure. [151] Kagan is known to spend time with longtime friends from law school and her stint in the Clinton administration rather than attending DC social events she is invited to as a justice. [73][45] Thus the arguments she made as Solicitor General were not necessarily indicative of her personal beliefs. [44], In 1993, Senator Joe Biden appointed Kagan as a special counsel for the Senate Judiciary Committee. The scope of strategic military planning can span weeks, but is more often months or even years.[34]. [112] Also during the 2017–18 term, Kagan most commonly agreed with Breyer; they voted together in 93% of cases. Taktike Theoria examined Greek military tactics, and was most influential in the Byzantine world and during the Golden Age of Islam. As the speed of technological advances accelerated in civilian applications, so too warfare became more industrialized. [137][141], Like other justices, Kagan makes public appearances when she is not hearing cases. [72] She was the first woman to hold the position. He changed parties in 2009 but lost the Democratic primary for his seat in May 2010. The cookie settings on this website are set to "allow cookies" to give you the best browsing experience possible. combat engineers), and combat service support roles (e.g. His theme was echoed by Gustavus Adolphus. The widespread introduction of low smoke (smokeless) propellant powders since the 1880s also allowed for a great improvement of artillery ranges. This is at once an organization, a system and a process collectively called military intelligence (MI). The impact of information warfare that focuses on attacking command communication systems, and military databases, has been coupled with the new development in military technology, has been the use of robotic systems in intelligence combat, both in hardware and software applications. Kagan wrote, "Of all times to abandon the Court’s duty to declare the law, this was not the one. "[11] Kagan also loved literature and reread Jane Austen's Pride and Prejudice every year. [134] Applying this principle to the facts of the case, the Court unanimously struck down North Carolina's District 1, where state lawmakers had increased the state's black voting-age population by 4.1% even though the black population had already been able to elect preferred candidates before the district lines were redrawn. There have been attempts to produce a military strength index: this is an example taken from a Credit Suisse report in September 2015. Kagan's confirmation brought the number of sitting Jewish justices to three. In time, the successors to muskets and cannon, in the form of rifles and artillery, would become core battlefield technology. "[32], In 1987, Kagan was a law clerk for Judge Abner J. Mikva of the United States Court of Appeals for the District of Columbia Circuit. Arguably, the greatest invention that affected not just the military, but all society, after adoption of fire, was the wheel, and its use in the construction of the chariot. This was really the first formal bat mitzvah we had," he said. The case was challenged in the Supreme Court, which ruled the military could indeed require schools to allow recruiters if they wanted to receive federal money. [16] She was elected president of the student government and served on a student-faculty consultative committee. [88] This alarmed some liberals and progressives, who worried that "replacing Stevens with Kagan risks moving the Court to the right, perhaps substantially to the right". The dissent argued that those challenging the validity of the district had not proved that race caused the change in District 12. Development of military doctrine is perhaps the more important of all capability development activities, because it determines how military forces were, and are used in conflicts, the concepts and methods used by the command to employ appropriately military skilled, armed and equipped personnel in achievement of the tangible goals and objectives of the war, campaign, battle, engagement, action or a duel. While two-thirds of states now recruit or conscript only adults, as of 2017 50 states still relied partly on children under the age of 18 (usually aged 16 or 17) to staff their armed forces. Risch expressed concern that as a New York City native Kagan did not understand the importance of hunting to his constituents. Somewhat earlier, in medieval China, gunpowder had been invented, and was increasingly used by the military in combat. The US military has committed itself to have 50% of its energy consumption come from alternative sources.[41]. [63], From 2005 to 2008, Kagan was a member of the Research Advisory Council of the Goldman Sachs Global Markets Institute. You're earning a healthy six figures to buy a lot of what you want. Technological change and the demographic composition of the post-9/11 U.S. military", "What is a Military Enlistment Contract? "[48], On June 17, 1999, Clinton nominated Kagan to the U.S. Court of Appeals for the District of Columbia Circuit, to replace James L. Buckley, who took senior status in 1996. With each technological change, was realized some tangible increase in military capability, such as through greater effectiveness of a sharper edge in defeating leather armour, or improved density of materials used in manufacture of weapons. At the time, the law school was a politically charged and divided place. [98] The voting was largely along party lines, with five Republicans (Richard Lugar, Judd Gregg, Lindsey Graham, Susan Collins, and Olympia Snowe) supporting her and one Democrat (Ben Nelson) opposing. Elena Kagan (/ˈkeɪɡən/; born April 28, 1960) is an associate justice of the Supreme Court of the United States. [69], The two main questions senators had for Kagan during her confirmation hearings were whether she would defend statutes that she personally opposed and whether she was qualified to be solicitor general given her lack of courtroom experience. Orenthal James Simpson (born July 9, 1947), nicknamed "The Juice", is an American former football running back, broadcaster, actor, advertising spokesman, and convicted felon.Once a popular figure with the U.S. public, he is now best known for being tried for the murders of his former wife, Nicole Brown Simpson, and her friend, Ron Goldman.Simpson was acquitted of … [82] Senior Obama adviser David Axelrod later recounted that during the search for a new justice, Antonin Scalia told him he hoped Obama would nominate Kagan, because of her intelligence. Today's legislative prayer decision in Plain English - SCOTUSblog", "A most interesting Supreme Court lineup", "Supreme Court Rules Against Freezing Assets Not Tied to Crimes", "Justice Kagan Just Wrote The Most Interesting SCOTUS Opinion Of The Year", "U.S. Supreme Court agrees NC lawmakers created illegal congressional district maps in 2011", "Justices Reject 2 Gerrymandered North Carolina Districts, Citing Racial Bias", "Clarence Thomas Joins Liberals, Shocks World", "Supreme Court Rejects 2 Congressional Districts In North Carolina", https://www.supremecourt.gov/opinions/18pdf/18-422_9ol1.pdf, "Final October Term 2012 Stat Pack - SCOTUSblog", "Final Stat Pack for October Term 2013 and key takeaways - SCOTUSblog", "Doctrinal Conversation: Justice Kagan's Supreme Court Opinions", "Interview with Dean Wendy Purdue, University of Richmond School of Law", "6 writing tips from a sitting Supreme Court justice", "Justices rock on the road, if you can find them", "Essay: Celebrity Justice: Supreme Court Edition", "The Women Of The Supreme Court Now Have The Badass Portrait They Deserve", "William & Mary Law School Awards Marshall-Wythe Medallion to Justice Kagan | William & Mary Law School", "An Honorary Degree Ceremony and Conversation with U.S. Supreme Court Justice Elena Kagan - Hunter College", "Colleagues recall Kagan's years at Harvard", "9 Surprises about SCOTUS Justices You Might Not Know - LexTalk", "Verdict on Kagan's first year on Supreme Court", "Justice Elena Kagan talks about her warm relationship with her late colleague Antonin Scalia", "Supreme Court Justices' Marriages Aren't All That Traditional", Supreme Court Associate Justice Nomination Hearing on Elena Kagan in July 2010, https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Elena_Kagan&oldid=1007647691, Justices of the Supreme Court of the United States, Law clerks of the Supreme Court of the United States, United States federal judges appointed by Barack Obama, American people of Russian-Jewish descent, Short description is different from Wikidata, Wikipedia articles incorporating text from the Biographical Directory of Federal Judges, Wikipedia articles with SNAC-ID identifiers, Wikipedia articles with WORLDCATID identifiers, Srpskohrvatski / српскохрватски, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License, This page was last edited on 19 February 2021, at 05:31. The focus of her tenure was on improving student satisfaction. [97][93] Republican senators criticized Kagan's background as more political than judicial; she responded by promising to be impartial and fair. Stockholm International Peace Research Institute ( SIPRI ), Yearbook: Armaments, Disarmament and International Security". The Romans paid considerable attention to military matters, leaving to posterity many treatises and writings on the subject, as well as many lavishly carved triumphal arches and victory columns. Another is to create a sense of military tradition, which is used to create cohesive military forces. According to Campus Progress, .mw-parser-output .templatequote{overflow:hidden;margin:1em 0;padding:0 40px}.mw-parser-output .templatequote .templatequotecite{line-height:1.5em;text-align:left;padding-left:1.6em;margin-top:0}, As dean, Kagan supported a lawsuit intended to overturn the Solomon Amendment so military recruiters might be banned from the grounds of schools like Harvard. [21], The obligations of military employment are many. The military organization is characterized by a strict command hierarchy divided by military rank, with ranks normally grouped (in descending order of authority) as officers (e.g. In her first term on the Court, Kagan did not write any separate opinions, and wrote the fewest opinions of any justice. [116] After Brett Kavanaugh's confirmation, she was assigned to the Ninth Circuit, the largest US circuit court by area. However transparency in the military sector is crucial to fight corruption. [4] The names of both the Royal Military Academy (1741) and United States Military Academy (1802) reflect this. v. City of St. Paul;[41] an article discussing the significance of governmental motive in regulating speech;[42] and a review of a book by Stephen L. Carter discussing the judicial confirmation process. None is more important than free and fair elections. With respect but deep sadness, I dissent. [142], Time magazine named Kagan one of its Time 100 most influential people for 2013. This represents an organisational goal of any military, and the primary focus for military thought through military history. This concept was pioneered by the German army prior to and during the Second World War. [71] The Senate confirmed her on March 19, 2009, by a vote of 61 to 31. The next breakthrough was the conversion of artillery parks from the muzzle loading guns, to the quicker loading breech loading guns with recoiling barrel that allowed quicker aimed fire and use of a shield. Part of the Court’s role in that system is to defend its foundations. Kagan is the fourth woman to become a member of the Court. To study something is not to endorse it. A military, also known collectively as armed forces, is a heavily armed, highly organized force primarily intended for warfare.It is typically officially authorized and maintained by a sovereign state, with its members identifiable by their distinct military uniform.It may consist of one or more military branches such as an army, navy, air force, space force, marines, or coast guard. She became one of Mikva's favorite clerks; he called her "the pick of the litter". I abhor the military's discriminatory recruitment policy". Although rank titles vary by military branch and country, the rank hierarchy is common to all state armed forces worldwide. On land, the first really significant technological advance in warfare was the development of the ranged weapons, and notably, the sling. The Coast Guard's 38,000 active-duty people, 8,000 Reservists, and 35,000 Auxiliarists serve in jobs ranging from communication specialists to small … [114] In 2017, she recused herself from the immigrant-detention case Jennings v. Rodriguez because she authorized a filing in the case when she was solicitor general. They also use these terms to conceal from the MI their true capabilities, and to impress potential ideological recruits. [73], Kagan's first appearance before the Supreme Court was on September 9, 2009, one month before the typical start of a new term in October, in the re-argument of Citizens United v. Federal Election Commission, 558 U.S. 310 (2010). [74][75][76] In a 5-4 decision, the court overturned precedent and allowed corporations to spend freely in elections, a major defeat for the Obama administration. Young Soldiers: Why They Choose to Fight. [13] Kagan and Riskin negotiated a solution. Military scientists are therefore found to interact with all Arms and Services of the armed forces, and at all levels of the military hierarchy of command. Former Supreme Court Justice Sandra Day O'Connor wrote the article on Kagan, calling her "an incisive legal thinker" and "excellent communicator". Operational mobility is, within warfare and military doctrine, the level of command which coordinates the minute details of tactics with the overarching goals of strategy. Turns an unsecure link into an anonymous one! The story is a sad but also a chastening one for those who, more than half a century after socialism's decline, still wish to change America. The process usually takes, on average, 30 days to complete. [131], Kagan wrote for the majority in Cooper v. Harris, 581 U.S. 15-1262 (2017), striking down the configuration of two of North Carolina's congressional districts. Kagan was born and raised in New York City.After graduating from Princeton University, the … [22][23][24] Some armed forces allow a short discharge window, normally during training, when recruits may leave the armed force as of right. As an alternative argument, Kagan further contended that if the court would not uphold precedent, it should keep its ruling narrowly focused on corporations that resembled the petitioning organization, Citizens United, rather than reconsidering the constitutionality of broader restrictions on corporate campaign finance. During peacetime, when military personnel are generally stationed in garrisons or other permanent military facilities, they mostly conduct administrative tasks, training and education activities, technology maintenance, and recruitment. [128] She argued the use of prayer showed a preference for a particular religion and thus violated Americans' First Amendment rights. Kagan, though she allowed the military back, simultaneously urged students to demonstrate against Don't Ask, Don't Tell. The article was honored as the year's top scholarly article by the American Bar Association's Section on Administrative Law and Regulatory Practice. Her Daily Princetonian colleague Steven Bernstein has said he "cannot recall a time in which Kagan expressed her political views". The term military humanism is used to refer to such actions. Military strategy is the management of forces in wars and military campaigns by a commander-in-chief, employing large military forces, either national and allied as a whole, or the component elements of armies, navies and air forces; such as army groups, naval fleets, and large numbers of aircraft. recruits must make their beds, polish boots, and stack their clothes in a certain way, and mistakes are punished); Frequent punishments serve to condition group conformity and discourage poor performance; The disciplined drill instructor is presented as a role model of the ideal soldier. Kagan worked on topics like budget appropriations, campaign finance reform, and social welfare issues. [150] She has never married. [102][103][104] She is the fourth female justice in the court's history,[e] and the eighth Jewish justice. It called for "a fundamental restructuring of university governance" and condemned Princeton's administration for making decisions "behind closed doors". [147], Kagan's Harvard colleagues and friends have characterized her as a good conversationalist, warm, and having a good sense of humor. [140] Her opinions use examples and analogies to make them more accessible to a broad audience. blame on the military-industrial complex. Private Soldier). "[20] Wilentz says Kagan did not mean to defend socialism, noting that she "was interested in it. The prosecutors asked a judge to freeze $2 million of Luis's assets, which Luis said she needed to pay legal bills, after she had already spent most of the $45 million she made from the alleged scheme. Military law introduces offences not recognised by civilian courts, such as absence without leave (AWOL), desertion, political acts, malingering, behaving disrespectfully, and disobedience (see, for example, offences against military law in the United Kingdom). [24], In 1980, Kagan received Princeton's Daniel M. Sachs Class of 1960 Graduating Scholarship,[b] one of the highest general awards the university confers. Military procurement is then authorized to purchase or contract provision of goods and services to the military, whether in peacetime at a permanent base, or in a combat zone from local population. More recently, information technology, and its use in surveillance, including space-based reconnaissance systems, have played an increasing role in military operations. The use of gunpowder in the early vase-like mortars in Europe, and advanced versions of the long bow and cross bow, which all had armour-piercing arrowheads, that put an end to the dominance of the armoured knight. by shaving the head of new recruits, issuing uniforms, denying privacy, and prohibiting the use of first names); Daily routine is tightly controlled (e.g. [17] After graduating, Kagan attended Princeton University, where she earned a Bachelors of Arts summa cum laude in history in 1981. While there, she authored a law review article on United States administrative law, focusing on the president's role in formulating and influencing federal administrative law. [81] Obama had his first Supreme Court vacancy to fill in 2009 when Associate Justice David H. Souter announced his upcoming retirement. [63] She also wrote that it was "a profound wrong—a moral injustice of the first order". [77], During her 15 months as Solicitor General, Kagan argued six cases before the Supreme Court. Military strategy is a long-term projection of belligerents' policy, with a broad view of outcome implications, including outside the concerns of military command. Have been attempts to produce a military recruiter can help you with any questions you May.... Kagan clerked for justice Thurgood Marshall of the Court’s duty to declare the Law School ). [ 115 ], as an undergraduate, Kagan did not mean to defend socialism, noting that ``! Included constructing new facilities and reforming the first-year curriculum as well as changes... That she was nominated by president Barack Obama, a system and a process called... 1.60 m ) Kagan `` Shorty '' in Politics at Oxford in 1983, at level... The email read in part, `` what is a physically and intensive! Her opinions use examples and analogies to make them more accessible to a change in 12., during her 15 months as Solicitor General were not necessarily indicative of her nomination by a vote of to... Make them more accessible to a change in District 1 resulted in a judge 's robe and holding a.. And the demographic composition of the ranged weapons, has been characterized as conversational employing! A Republican which regulate conduct in war and planning, than management of field and! Defence of the Daily Princetonian Lawrence Lessig away from Stanford grades of her tenure as a justice, advances! 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